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芬蘭寶寶為何睡紙箱?

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2014-07-01  來源:食品翻譯中心  瀏覽次數:1345
核心提示:75年以來,芬蘭的準媽媽們都會收到國家發給她們的一個紙箱子。這只箱子有點像一個裝滿衣服、被單和玩具的入門套裝,甚至可以用作小床。有人說正是這一舉措使得芬蘭得以保持世界最低的嬰兒死亡率。
It's a tradition that dates back to the 1930s and it's designed to give all children in Finland, no matter what background they're from, an equal start in life.

 
The maternity package - a gift from the government - is available to all expectant mothers.

 
It contains bodysom, the box becomes a baby's first bed. Many children, from all social backgrounds, have their first naps within the safety of the box's four cardboard walls.

 
Mother and daughters look at a pack from 1947
A 1947 maternity pack
Mothers have a choice between taking the box, or a cash grant, currently set at 140 euros, but 95% opt for the box as it's worth much more.

 
The tradition dates back to 1938. To begin with, the scheme was only available to families on low incomes, but that changed in 1949.

 
"Not only was it offered to all mothers-to-be but new legislation meant in order to get the grant, or maternity box, they had to visit a doctor or municipal pre-natal clinic before their fourth month of pregnancy," says Heidi Liesivesi, who works at Kela - the Social Insurance Institution of Finland.

 
So the box provided mothers with what they needed to look after their baby, but it also helped steer pregnant women into the arms of the doctors and nurses of Finland's nascent welfare state.

 
In the 1930s Finland was a poor country and infant mortality was high - 65 out of 1,000 babies died. But the figures improved rapidly in the decades that followed.

 
Mika Gissler, a professor at the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Helsinki, gives several reasons for this - the maternity box and pre-natal care for all women in the 1940s, followed in the 60s by a national health insurance system and the central hospital network.

Contents of the box

Contents of the 2013 pack
  • Mattress, mattress cover, undersheet, duvet cover, blanket, sleeping bag/quilt
  • Box itself doubles as a crib
  • Snowsuit, hat, insulated mittens and booties
  • Light hooded suit and knitted overalls
  • Socks and mittens, knitted hat and balaclava
  • Bodysuits, romper suits and leggings in unisex colours and patterns
  • Hooded bath towel, nail scissors, hairbrush, toothbrush, bath thermometer, nappy cream, wash cloth
  • Cloth nappy set and muslin squares
  • Picture book and teething toy
  • Bra pads, condoms
  • Dressing baby for the weather: Finland's official childcare advice
At 75 years old, the box is now an established part of the Finnish rite of passage towards motherhood, uniting generations of women.

 
Reija Klemetti, a 49-year-old from Helsinki, remembers going to the post office to collect a box for one of her six children.

 

 
"It was lovely and exciting to get it and somehow the first promise to the baby," she says. "My mum, friends and relatives were all eager to see what kind of things were inside and what colours they'd chosen for that year."

 
Her mother-in-law, aged 78, relied heavily on the box when she had the first of her four children in the 60s. At that point she had little idea what she would need, but it was all provided.

 
More recently, Klemetti's daughter Solja, aged 23, shared the sense of excitement that her mother had once experienced, when she took possession of the "first substantial thing" prior to the baby itself. She now has two young children.

 
"It's easy to know what year babies were born in, because the clothing in the box changes a little every year. It's nice to compare and think, 'Ah that kid was born in the same year as mine'," says Titta Vayrynen, a 35-year-old mother with two young boys.

 
For some families, the contents of the box would be unaffordable if they were not free of charge, though for Vayrynen, it was more a question of saving time than money.

 
She was working long hours when pregnant with her first child, and was glad to be spared the effort of comparing prices and going out shopping.

 
"There was a recent report saying that Finnish mums are the happiest in the world, and the box was one thing that came to my mind. We are very well taken care of, even now when some public services have been cut down a little," she says.

 
When she had her second boy, Ilmari, Vayrynen opted for the cash grant instead of the box and just re-used the clothes worn by her first, Aarni.

 
A boy can pass on clothes to a girl too, and vice versa, because the colours are deliberately gender-neutral.

 
Infant mortality in Finland
The contents of the box have changed a good deal over the years, reflecting changing times.

 
During the 30s and 40s, it contained fabric because mothers were accustomed to making the baby's clothes.

 
Continue reading the main story
More from the Magazine

 
Pram in snow
Would you put your baby or toddler outside in the freezing cold for their lunchtime nap? Most Nordic parents wouldn't give it a second thought. For them it's part of their daily routine.

 
"I think it's good for them to be in the fresh air as soon as possible," says Lisa Mardon, a mother-of-three from Stockholm, who works for a food distribution company.

 
"Especially in the winter when there's lots of diseases going around... the kids seem healthier."

 
The babies who nap in sub-zero temperatures
But during World War II, flannel and plain-weave cotton were needed by the Defence Ministry, so some of the material was replaced by paper bed sheets and swaddling cloth.

 
The 50s saw an increase in the number of ready-made clothes, and in the 60s and 70s these began to be made from new stretchy fabrics.

 
In 1968 a sleeping bag appeared, and the following year disposable nappies featured for the first time.

 
Not for long. At the turn of the century, the cloth nappies were back in and the disposable variety were out, having fallen out of favour on environmental grounds.

 
Encouraging good parenting has been part of the maternity box policy all along.

 
"Babies used to sleep in the same bed as their parents and it was recommended that they stop," says Panu Pulma, professor in Finnish and Nordic History at the University of Helsinki. "Including the box as a bed meant people started to let their babies sleep separately from them."

 
At a certain point, baby bottles and dummies were removed to promote breastfeeding.

 
"One of the main goals of the whole system was to get women to breastfeed more," Pulma says. And, he adds, "It's happened."

 
He also thinks including a picture book has had a positive effect, encouraging children to handle books, and, one day, to read.

 
And in addition to all this, Pulma says, the box is a symbol. A symbol of the idea of equality, and of the importance of children.

 
Continue reading the main story
The story of the maternity pack

 
Pack from 1953
1938: Finnish Maternity Grants Act introduced - two-thirds of women giving birth that year eligible for cash grant, maternity pack or mixture of the two
Pack could be used as a cot as poorest homes didn't always have a clean place for baby to sleep
1940s: Despite wartime shortages, scheme continued as many Finns lost homes in bombings and evacuations
1942-6: Paper replaced fabric for items such as swaddling wraps and mother's bedsheet
1949: Income testing removed, pack offered to all mothers in Finland - if they had prenatal health checks (1953 pack pictured above)
1957: Fabrics and sewing materials completely replaced with ready-made garments
1969: Disposable nappies added to the pack
1970s: With more women in work, easy-to-wash stretch cotton and colourful patterns replace white non-stretch garments
2006: Cloth nappies reintroduced, bottle left out to encourage breastfeeding


譯文:
 

75年以來,芬蘭的準媽媽們都會收到國家發給她們的一個紙箱子。這只箱子有點像一個裝滿衣服、被單和玩具的入門套裝,甚至可以用作小床。有人說正是這一舉措使得芬蘭得以保持世界最低的嬰兒死亡率。

據英國廣播公司(BBC)網站報道這項傳統始于20世紀30年代,政府實施這一舉措旨在讓所有嬰兒都能擁有一個平等的人生開端,無論他們出身如何。

每一位芬蘭的準媽媽都可以收到這樣一個產科包——一份來自政府的禮物。

新生兒被放在這個箱子里面,這箱子便成為了他們的第一張床。來自各種社會背景的嬰兒,都在箱子四面紙板的安全保護下進入生命中第一次酣眠。

Mother and daughters look at a pack from 1947

(圖)一位母親和女兒正在看一個1947年的產科包

準媽媽們可以在產科包紙箱和現金之間二選一,現金的金額為140歐元,不過95%的人都會選擇產科包紙箱,因為它更有意義。

這項傳統開始于1938年。起初,產科包紙箱只是針對那些低收入家庭,但1949年起,政策開始改變。

“政府不僅開始向所有的準媽媽們提供產科包紙箱,同時新的法案還規定要想得到產科包或者現金,準媽媽們必須在懷孕的第四個月之前去一次醫院或者是當地的產前診所進行檢查,”在芬蘭社會保障中心工作的海蒂(Heidi Liesivesi)說。

產科包為準媽媽們提供了照料孩子所需要的各種東西,還使她們愿意向芬蘭高福利醫療體系中的醫生護士尋求幫助。

20世紀30年代的芬蘭還是一個貧困的國家,嬰兒死亡率非常高——每1000個嬰兒當中就有65個會死亡。但是在接下來的日子里,芬蘭的嬰兒死亡率開始大幅下降。

國家健康福利研究所的米卡·吉斯勒教授為我們歸納了嬰兒死亡率下降的原因:一方面,40年代起產科包開始發放以及孕婦需要進行孕期檢查,另一方面,60年代全民醫療保障體系獲得推廣,中央醫療網絡也起了一定作用。

Contents of the 2013 pack

 

(圖)產科包中所裝的物品

褥子,床罩,床單,被罩,毯子,睡袋/棉被

紙箱本身還可作為嬰兒床

兒童防雪裝,帽子,絕緣手套,嬰兒襪

連帽衫套裝以及針織背帶褲

短襪和手套,巴拉克拉法帽子

緊身連衫褲,連體衫,以及男女皆可用的裹腿,中性裹腿。

浴巾,指甲剪,發刷,牙刷,浴用溫度計,尿布霜,洗浴毛巾

尿布和口罩布

圖畫書和出牙期玩具

胸罩墊,安全套

存在了75年之久的產科包,如今已經成為芬蘭準媽媽們必經的一項儀式,小小的紙箱將幾代芬蘭女人凝聚在了一起。

49歲的克萊邁提仍然記得她當初前往郵局領取產科包的情景,這位來自赫爾辛基的女士一共育有6名子女。

“拿到箱子的感覺非常愉快,感覺好像是對孩子做出的第一個承諾一樣,”她說。“我的媽媽、朋友和親戚都很想看看箱子里到底裝了些什么東西,還想知道他們今年選了什么顏色。”

她的婆婆在60年代養育自己的第一個孩子時就享受到了產科包帶來的極大幫助,如今老人已經78歲了。在那時,她完全不知道自己需要些什么東西,但是產科包里已經都為她準備好了。

最近,當克萊邁提23歲的女兒索潔(Solja)在孩子出生之前領取到了產科包時,她也終于體驗到了她的母親經歷過的那種激動,F在,索潔已經是兩個孩子的母親了。

“很容易就能知道孩子出生的年份,因為箱子里的衣服每年都會有一些變化。孕婦之間互相對比也很有趣。”‘啊,這孩子跟我的孩子是同一年出生的呢,’35歲的瓦伊里寧說,她已經使兩個男孩的母親。

對于有些家庭而言,如果不是免費,箱子里那些物品可能是他們無力負擔的,然而對于瓦伊里寧來說,產科包帶來的意義更多的是為她節省時間而不是錢。

瓦伊里寧懷第一個孩子時的工作時間很長,讓她感到高興的是,產科包里一應俱全的裝備為她省去了外出購物以及貨比三家所需要的時間。

“有一份報告說芬蘭的母親是全世界最幸福的,看到這個結果的時候我腦子最先想到的就是產科包。的確,即使一些公共服務已經被削減,我們仍舊受到了很好的照顧”,她說。

在懷第二個孩子伊萬里的時候,瓦伊里寧選擇了現金而不是產科包,因為她直接將第一個孩子阿爾尼的衣服再利用了。

男孩可以將產科包中的衣服傳遞給女孩用,反之也一樣,因為那些衣服的顏色正是特意選擇出的男女皆宜的。

隨著年份的變化,產科包中的物品也變了又變,這些變化反映著時代的變遷。

30和40年代的產科包中還裝著紡織品,因為當時的母親習慣于自己給孩子制作衣服。

但是在二戰期間,由于國防部需要大量的法蘭絨和棉花,因此產科包中的需求就用紙床單和襁褓布來代替。

50年代開始,出現了大量成衣,60、70年代開始,又開始出現由新的彈性纖維制成的成衣。

1968年出現了睡袋,在接下來的時間里,又有很多一次性的尿布開始出現。

不久,在世紀之交,由于人們環境保護理念的增強,布尿布重新回到歷史舞臺,一次性用品開始消失。

鼓勵更好的養育方式一直都是政府推行產科包時秉承的一項理念。

“過去嬰兒都是和父母睡在同一張床上,但后來有專家建議父母們不要這么做,”赫爾辛基大學的帕努·普爾瑪(Panu Pulma)教授說。“將紙箱子作為嬰兒床來使用也意味著人們開始拋棄過去那種和寶寶睡在一起的做法。”

為了推廣母乳喂養,產科包中去除了奶瓶和類似的仿制品。

“這一系列舉措的目的就是為了鼓勵更多女性實行母乳喂養,”普爾瑪說,“并且也的確實現了這一目的。”

他還認為在產科包中的圖畫書也會產生積極的影響,它會鼓勵嬰兒拿起書,然后有一天,甚至會去讀它。

除了這些之外,普爾瑪說,這個產科包時一個符號。它象征著平等的理念,也象征著孩子們的重要性。

產科包的故事

Pack from 1953

1953年的產科包

1938年:芬蘭產科撥款法案幫助三分之二的芬蘭孕婦,她們或是選擇現金,或是選擇產科包,或是選擇兩者的混合。

產科包可以作為嬰兒床來使用,因為有些貧困的家庭甚至沒有一塊干凈的地方來供寶寶睡覺。

1940年代:盡管面臨著戰時物資短缺,甚至很多芬蘭人在爆炸和逃難中失去了家庭,產科包計劃仍舊在實行。

1942年6月:人們開始用紙來代替原來產科包中的紡織品,諸如襁褓布和床單之類的。

1949年:原有的收入審查取消,產科包開始向所有的芬蘭孕婦發放——只要她們手中有孕期檢查記錄單(上圖為1953年的產科包)

1957年:產科包中的紡織和縫紉材料徹底被成衣取代

1969年:產科包中增加了一次性尿布

1970年代:隨著越來越多婦女都在工作,易洗的、有彈性的棉花以及彩色的款式代替了原先無彈性的白色衣物

2006年:布尿布重新回到產科包中,并將奶瓶去除,以推進母乳喂養


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