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食物儲存:你最喜歡的食品應放在哪里?放多久?

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2014-07-11  來源:食品翻譯中心  瀏覽次數:2754
核心提示:關于食物儲存和食品安全,冰箱里該放什么?不該放什么?怎樣防止食物過早腐爛?怎樣避免食物浪費?等等。本文為你一一道來...
Part of treating ingredients correctly is knowing the best places to store them, and for how long. Let's tackle several storage myths and general confusions, starting with the counter and the pantry.
Food Storage 101: Where and How Long to Keep Your Favorite Foods

The Counter

Garlic, onions, and shallots: These alliums can be stored in a cool, dry place for up to two weeks. In the fridge, they will turn mealy and lose much of their flavor.

Tomatoes, potatoes, and winter squash: Although it may seem blasphemous to keep vegetables out of the refrigerator, trust us (and the USDA): these should be kept in a cool, dry place instead. (Plus, they make beautiful decorations.)

Bananas, citrus, and melons: Like the vegetables listed above, these fruits are best left on the counter. Once cut, they should be relegated to the refrigerator; otherwise, they will begin to dry out.

Bread: To slow down retrogradation—the process in which the starch molecules in bread crystallize—Cook's Illustrated says to store bread at room temperature for up to two days, either tightly-wrapped in foil or in a Ziploc bag to minimize moisture loss. After two days, wrap the bread in foil, place in a freezer bag, and store it in the freezer. And to revive crusty bread that's been stored for more than a day, just pop it into the oven for a few minutes.

Cakes and pies: According to pastry chef Stella Parks, both frosted and un-frosted whole cakes will last for about a week when tightly wrapped in plastic. Cut cakes have a shorter shelf life, around three to four days. Fruit pies can be kept on the countertop for up to two days; after this, move them to the refrigerator.

The Pantry

Dry goods: Generally, dry goods can be stored for up to six months (longer if you take good care of them), according to scientists at Colorado State University. Once a package is open, it’s best to move it to an air-tight container. This will ensure freshness and keep your pantry cleaner to boot.

Nuts: Store your nuts in air-tight containers if possible—these allow them to maintain the right level of moisture. For ultimate freshness, consider storing them with their shells on.

Spices: As the LA Times tells us, heat, light, air, and humidity are all spices’ enemies; your spices should live in your pantry. Whole spices last much longer than crushed or ground—these can be kept for up to two years, while ground spices should be refreshed every six months. Airtight tins or small spice jars are the best mode of storage.

Now, we're taking you to the refrigerator and freezer. Because not all parts are created equal, we'll show you where—and for how long—your goods will last.

The Refrigerator

Dairy products: According to Cooks Illustrated, milk, cream, yogurt, and other dairy products are best stored on the upper shelves of your refrigerator. The temperature there is the most constant, so they'll keep longer.

Eggs: Some refrigerators urge you to put your eggs on the inside of their door. Don’t give in— the door is the warmest part of the refrigerator. Eggs are happiest in their cartons on a shelf. Don't try to be European and store your eggs outside the refrigerator either: eggs in the United States, unlike in Europe, are washed before sale so they lose their protective outer layer.

Mushrooms: According to our friends at the Kitchn, commercial mushrooms (the ones you buy at the grocery store) are best left in their original packaging. Once you open it, wrap the whole package in plastic wrap. Wild mushrooms are best kept in a paper bag in your refrigerator’s crisper drawer.

Vegetables: All vegetables, minus the ones relegated to the countertop, are best stored in perforated plastic bags in your refrigerator’s crisper drawer. To make sure they don't decompose prematurely, keep them away from ethylene-producing fruits: apples, stone fruits, mangoes, passion fruit, pears, and kiwis.

Fruit: Fruit, with the exception of melons, citrus, and bananas, should be stored in the refrigerator in a separate drawer from the vegetables. Do not wash your fruit until you are ready to eat it; the excess water quickens decomposition. Although whole lemons are best left out on the counter, lemons that have been zested—but not juiced—can be wrapped in plastic wrap and stored in the refrigerator.

Cheese: According to Formaticum's blog, cheese should be wrapped in porous material for storage; cheese paper is the best, but waxed paper or parchment paper will also do the trick. Before storing, do a “face clean” of each cheese: scrape the surface with a non-serrated knife to remove any excess oil that may have “sweat out” at room temperature.

Each cheese should be wrapped separately and marked with the name and date of purchase. Avoid plastic wrap at all costs—as scientiest Harold McGee says in his book On Food and Cooking, the cheese can absorb the flavors and chemicals from the plastic. There’s nothing worse than an expensive piece of cheese that reeks of plastic or has gone bad, so storing it correctly is worth that extra effort. For a handy how-to, check out this article from Serious Eats.


Meat: Meat is best stored in the coldest section of the refrigerator: the bottom. Removing the retail packaging and rewrapping the meat in foil can extend its shelf life, but you should try to consume refrigerated meat within 4 days of purchase.

Fish: Before refrigerating a piece of fish, dry it completely and wrap it in waxed paper. It will usually keep in the coldest part of your fridge for up to two days, but make sure to check the smell before you cook it. If it smells too fishy or has an off color, throw it out. For bonus points: store wrapped fish on a bed of ice (heaped in a bowl or shallow dish) in the fridge, and change as needed, à la Cooks Illustrated

Pies: According to Betty Crocker, pies containing eggs (custard or cream-based pies) should be stored loosely covered in the refrigerator.

Yeast: While yeast can last in the pantry, it's best stored in the refrigerator (or freezer, for long-term). Once exposed to heat and light, it's easily killed.

Herbs: According to FOOD52-er RobertaJ on this Hotline thread, basil, parsley, cilantro, and other leafy, water-based herbs should be treated like flowers: take off any twisty ties, trim a small amount off the stem ends, and plop the bunch into a tall glass of water. Cover the herbs loosely with a plastic bag, and they’ll stay fresh for at least a week. Hardier, oil-based herbs like thyme and rosemary can be wrapped in a damp paper towel and layered into plastic bags. Hotline MVP anitalectric has a special tip for basil: wash, dry, and stem the basil when you get home from the market, and keep the leaves in a rolled-down plastic bag. They’ll stay fresh for five days.

The Freezer

Meat: Freezing uncooked meat in its original packaging is the best way to keep it for long periods of time. According to the USDA, the maximum recommended freezer storage time for beef and lamb is six months; for veal, pork, and poultry, four months; and for seasoned sausage, two months.

Fish: Fish can last in the freezer, according to the Perdue University Center for Animal Sciences, for up to 6 months. Fattier fish, however, should not be frozen for over three months. For the best results, use the ice-glaze method provided by the National Center for Home Food Preservation: place the unwrapped fish in the freezer until completely frozen, dip the fish in near-freezing ice water, and place it back in the freezer to harden. Continue with this process until a uniform cover of ice is formed, then place the fish in a freezer bag for storage. As an alternative, according to the FDA you can simply wrap your fish tightly in plastic, foil, or moisture-proof paper before freezing.

Pies and pie crusts: You can freeze crusts and whole pies, baked or unbaked. According to Betty Crocker, an unbaked crust will keep for two months; an unbaked pie for three months; and a baked crust or pie for four months.

Cake: Un-cut, un-frosted cakes can be wrapped first in plastic wrap, then tin foil, and stored in the freezer for several months. To thaw, let the rounds spend a night in the refrigerator; cake needs to thaw slowly so that it can reabsorb its moisture.

Stock: Freeze stock in ice cube trays or muffin tins, then store the cubes/chunks in a freezer bag. That way, you can access a small amount of stock whenever a recipe calls for it. To save even more space, reduce the stock by 50 percent before you freeze it, then add water when you defrost it. According to Martha Stewart Living, frozen stock will last up to two months. You can also store leftover wine in the same manner and use as needed.

Coffee: Cook's Illustrated says the freezer is the best place to store ground coffee beans; they keep longer, and will retain their well-rounded, roasted flavor.

Citrus Zest: Here's a tip from the smart folks at The Kitchn: any time you use a lemon, lime, grapefruit, or orange, take a few minutes to zest it. You can store the zest in the freezer in plastic bags for each fruit—or if you’re feeling fancy, in individual, plastic-wrapped portions.

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對于香料和調味劑,一定要選擇正確的地方來放置,放置時間也要注意。我們先要打破幾個錯誤的存放要點和普遍做法,先從廚房里的灶臺和食品儲存柜說起。

灶臺

大蒜和蔥類:這些蔥蒜類食材應存放在干燥低溫處最多兩周。若置于冰箱,它們中的水分和味道都會流失。

西紅柿、馬鈴薯和筍瓜:雖然人們普遍將它們放在冰箱里,但我們和USDA(美國農業部有機標準認證)不會騙人:這些同樣也應存放在干燥低溫處而不是冰箱里。(順便提一句,這些同樣也能成為家居裝飾佳品。)

香蕉,柑橘和甜瓜:這些的存放辦法和之前提過的蔬菜存放法差不多,水果最好是置于灶臺邊。不過,一旦切開水果,就要把他們放到第二選擇冰箱里,不然很快會干掉。

面包類:若想持續保鮮(即延緩面包中的淀粉成分結晶化),廚子靈感網站(Cook‘s Illustrated,美食烹飪網站)建議在用箔紙密封或放在塑膠袋中減少水分流失,室溫中最多保存兩天。若是生產的面包已經過了兩天,將其用箔紙密封,放在冷藏袋中裝在冷藏柜。若想讓冷藏超過一天的面包回復香脆口感,只要將其放在微波爐中幾分鐘即可搞定!

蛋糕和派:根據糕點名店Stella Parks的說法,裹糖粉和不裹糖粉的整塊蛋糕若密封在食品袋中,能保存約一周時間。已經切開的蛋糕的儲存時間相對較短,大概是三到四天。水果派放在灶臺上最多能保存兩天,兩天后必須將其放倒冰箱里。

食品儲藏柜

谷物類:科羅拉多州立大學的科學家們發現,一般來說,谷物最多能保存六個月,若你保存得好甚至更長時間。一旦打開包裝袋,最好把它們放在密封食品罐里,這樣能保證其新鮮并不會弄臟地板。

堅果類:盡量將堅果類食品放在密封食物罐中,這樣能讓食物保持其水分含量。若想完全保留其新鮮口味,不妨保留它們的外殼再進行儲存。

香料:《洛杉磯時報》編輯告訴我們,熱,光,空氣和潮濕是儲存香料的大敵。香料應該放在食品儲藏柜里。完整未切的香料比起以切碎的或長在地里的能保存更久,長達兩年時間,而長在地里的香料每六個月都要進行補給。存放香料最好的是罐子或香料盒。

接下來,我們將說說冰箱和冷藏柜?赡艽蠹壹依镫娖鞯那闆r都不一樣,我們將講解食物應放在冰箱的哪個位置以及存放時間。

冰箱冷藏室

奶制品:廚子靈感網站認為,牛奶、奶油、酸奶和其它奶制品最好放在冰箱的偏上夾層。這個位置的溫度最穩定,因而奶制品能保存更久。

蛋:一些冰箱廠家建議將雞蛋放在冰箱門內層,千萬不要這樣做!冰箱門是整個冰箱溫度最高的部分。對于雞蛋來說,最好的儲存辦法是放在雞蛋紙擔里放在架子上。別學歐洲人,把雞蛋放在冰箱外面吧!和歐洲人不同美國人在出售前會先洗一洗,這讓雞蛋失去了外面的保護層。

蘑菇:同樣來自廚子靈感網站的朋友告訴我們,從百貨店買回的蘑菇最好保留其原來的包裝。一旦打開包裝,要將蘑菇和原包裝一起密封在塑料食品袋中。野生蘑菇最好裝進紙袋里并放入干燥的抽屜存放。

蔬菜:所有的蔬菜,除了那些快要腐爛被放在灶臺上的那些,最好都放在扎了孔的塑料袋中并置于冰箱的屜子里。為防止蔬菜過早腐爛,要將其和易釋放乙烯的水果分開,比如蘋果,核果類,芒果,雞蛋果,梨,獼猴桃等。

水果:除去甜瓜、柑橘和香蕉外,各類水果應該放在冰箱中一個獨立的屜子里,與蔬菜分開。不要過早沖洗水果,而是在吃之前才這么做,因為多余的水分殘余會加速水果腐變。盡管整個的檸檬最好是放在灶臺上,但已經削皮或榨過汁的檸檬應放在保鮮袋密封并放入冰箱。

奶酪:根據Formaticum網站(專業的奶酪網站)的建議,奶酪應密封在透氣的材質中進行儲存,奶酪紙是最佳選擇。不過,蠟紙或羊皮紙也能達到同樣效果。在存放奶酪前,要清理干凈每一塊奶酪的表面:用無鋸齒的小刀刮去奶酪表面所有在室溫下可能冒出的多余油脂。

每塊奶酪應分開密封保存并標記其名稱和購買日期。根據科學家哈洛德‧馬基在《食物與廚藝》一書中所提到的,不管什么價位的塑料袋,都不能用來裝奶酪,因為奶酪會吸收塑料袋的氣味和化學成分。沒有什么事情比一塊昂貴卻散發塑料惡臭或已經腐爛的奶酪更糟糕了。所以,我們很值得多花些心力正確存儲這些食物。如何采用更方便的妙招呢,請參考“吃可不是小事兒”網站(美食網站)的原文。

肉類:肉最好存放在冰箱里溫度最低的位置,即底部。把包肉的零售包裝去掉,重新用箔片密封包好,這樣能延長其保質期。但即便如此,也應盡量在肉存放冰箱四天內吃完。

魚類:在把一條魚放入冰箱前,徹徹底底晾干并用蠟紙密封好。通常情況下魚放在冰箱溫度最低的位置最多保存兩天,但要注意在烹飪前問一問魚有沒有變餿。若聞起來太腥或顏色不鮮亮了,果斷扔掉。還有一些來自“廚子靈感”的貼心提示:將密封包好的與放在碎冰上(碎冰可放在容器中,適用于淺水魚等)存入冰箱,在需要時取出。

派:根據貝蒂克羅克食譜網站的建議,含有蛋(蛋羹和奶油派等)的派應稍稍松散地蓋住放于冰箱里。

酵母:雖然酵母也能儲存在食品儲藏柜,但最佳方法是存放在冰箱中(或冷凍柜里,長期儲存)。一旦遇上高溫或光,它極容易變質。

草本類:FOOD52網站成員羅伯特認為,放置紫蘇、西芹、香菜和其它多葉多汁的草本植物應像放置鮮花一樣,去掉多余纏繞的部分,修建一些莖干末端,然后將它們撲通一聲放在裝水的細長瓶子中。松松地將它們用塑料袋蓋住,這樣它們至少能保鮮一周。而耐寒、油性草本植物,比如百里香和迷迭香則可以用微微潤濕的紙巾包好,然后一層層放進塑料袋里。MVP熱線對于存放紫蘇有一個妙招:洗凈,曬干,并在買回家后好好密封起來,把葉子包在壓平的塑料袋中。這樣能把它保存五天。

冷凍柜

肉類:肉類最好的保鮮辦法是將買回的肉連原有包裝一原封不動地放進冷凍柜,這樣能保鮮很久。USDA(美國農業部有機標準認證)建議,牛羊肉在冷凍柜的最長保質期為六個月;牛排、豬肉、家禽生肉可存四個月;干臘肉可存放兩個月。

魚:珀杜大學動物科學中心建議,魚最多可存放在冷凍柜內半年,其中脂肪含量高的魚肉最好不要超過三個月。國家家庭食物保鮮中心教給我們一個絕佳的辦法——給魚穿上“冰衣”——將去下包裝袋的魚放到冷凍柜直到完全冰凍,將它放到幾乎快凍住的冰水中,再把魚放回冷凍柜,一直重復這個過程,直到魚漸漸穿上一件厚厚的冰制服,最后將其放在冷凍柜保存。還有一個類似的辦法,根據美國食品藥品管理局的建議,只要用塑料膜、箔片或沾濕的紙將魚緊緊包住再放進冷凍柜即可。

派和硬面包:不管是烘焙過與否,你都可以直接將硬面包和一整塊派放入冷凍柜。根據貝蒂·克羅克糕點屋的經驗,未烘焙的硬面包能用此方法保存兩個月,未烘焙的派則能保存三個月。而烤過的硬面包和派則可以放四個月之久。

蛋糕:未切開、未撒糖霜的蛋糕應先用塑料膜包好,再放到箔紙盒里,存放到冷凍柜,時間可長達好幾個月。若要解凍,先移放到冷藏室一個晚上,因為慢慢解凍的蛋糕才能回復其水潤口感。

冷藏柜存放量:空出一些位置放置冰塊托盤或小松糕罐子,然后他們放在冷凍袋子里。通過這種做法,不論何時你的食譜需要一些冷藏柜小空間,都沒有問題。若想獲得更多空間,在冷凍食物時先將它們的量減少一半,然后再解凍時慢慢加水進去,斔_斯圖爾特式生活(一家表現娛樂方式和家庭裝扮的雜志和電視節目)建議,放在冷凍柜的東西最多只能存放兩個月。你也能將剩余的酒放進去,需要時再拿出來。

咖啡:廚子靈感網站告訴我們,冷凍柜用來存放磨碎的咖啡豆再好不過了,時間更久,更能全方位保持其烘焙香味。

柑橘汁:廚房網站(美食及烹飪網站)教給我們一個妙招,若你想使用檸檬、酸橙、葡萄柚、桔子等材料,最好先將它們榨汁。你可以將不同的果汁水分別放在保鮮袋里置于冰凍柜中。當然,若你喜歡,也能定量放在不同塑料袋中密封起來。
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