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法國菜烹飪藝術---第十章:甜點和蛋糕之基礎知識(第一部分)

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2011-09-13  瀏覽次數:3248
核心提示:你在做甜點或蛋糕的時候或多或少都會用到下面這些知識。有些可以讓機器幫忙,有些只有手工制作效果才好。都不是什么難事兒,但卻是成敗的關鍵,所以一定要嚴格照辦。


1. FUNDAMENTAL TECHNIQUES AND INFORMATION基本技巧和基礎知識
ONE OR SEVERAL of the following processes will be a part of almost any dessert or cake recipe you encounter. Some can be accomplished by machine, others are better performed by hand. None is difficult, but all contribute to the success of your dish and must be done precisely.
你在做甜點或蛋糕的時候或多或少都會用到下面這些知識。有些可以讓機器幫忙,有些只有手工制作效果才好。都不是什么難事兒,但卻是成敗的關鍵,所以一定要嚴格照辦。

2. EGG WHITES如何打發蛋白
Innumerable desserts, as well as souffles and all the spongecakes, call for stiffly beaten egg whites. Successful cooking of any of these dishes is usually dependent on how voluminous and stiff you have beaten the egg whites, and how carefully you have folded them into the rest of the ingredients. As they are so important, we shall continually put in little reminders and warnings about them. Directions and illustrations for egg whites begin on page 159, in the Entree chapter. You will note that in all the recipes for beaten egg whites in this chapter a tablespoon of sugar is whipped into them near the end of the beating; this gives them an added bit of stiffness and body. You will also note that egg whites may be folded into either a hot or a cold sauce or batter; unlike whipped cream, which liquefies when it comes in contact with hot ingredients, egg whites are not affected.
甜點中用到打發蛋白的例子數不勝數,舒芙厘和海綿蛋糕都屬此列。蛋白打發后的膨脹程度和發泡程度,將蛋白翻拌入其他配料中時夠不夠小心,這些往往都是這類甜點成功與否的關鍵。因為這些步驟實在太重要了,所以我們會不時地加些小提示和小提醒來幫助你。在第159頁,主菜那章中已經對蛋白的做法進行了一些講解和圖示。你會注意到本章中打發蛋白時最后都要加入一湯匙白糖,這樣可以增加發泡和膨松的程度。你還會注意到有時可能會要求你把蛋白翻拌到或熱或冷的醬汁或面糊里頭,不像打發的奶油接觸到熱的配料就會液化,蛋白沒有這個問題。

3. BEATING EGGS AND SUGAR TO FORM THE RIBBON如何將蛋黃和糖打發成絲帶
Whenever egg yolks and sugar are beaten together the recipe will say to continue beating "until the mixture is pale yellow and forms the ribbon." This prepares the egg yolks so that they can be heated without turning granular.
甜點食譜中只要里提到將蛋黃和糖放在一起攪打,就會提到要攪打至“淺黃色并呈絲帶狀”。攪打到這個程度的蛋黃在加熱時就不會結塊了。

To accomplish it, add the sugar gradually to the egg yolks in a mixing bowl while beating with a wire whip or an electric beater; continue beating for 2 to 3 minutes. The mixture will turn a pale, creamy yellow, and thicken enough so that when a bit is lifted in the beater, it will fall back into the bowl forming a slowly dissolving ribbon on the surface of the mixture. Do not beat beyond this point or the egg yolks may become granular.
要達到這種程度,需要一邊用打蛋器或電動攪拌機攪打碗里的蛋黃,一邊慢慢兒加糖,要持續攪打2到3分鐘;旌系牡耙簳兂蓽\黃色,奶糊狀,而且夠粘稠,用攪拌器拎起來一點就會像絲帶散落一樣慢慢兒落回碗里。不過也別攪打過頭了,不然蛋黃液可能會結塊。

4. WHIPPED CREAM如何打發奶油
As used in French cooking, whipped cream should double in volume, and be light, smooth, and free from granules. Much the same principles apply to it as to the beating of egg whites, in that you must incorporate as much air as possible. The stationary electric beater never produces as smooth and light a cream as could be wished; the electric blender is not recommended at all. Chilled whipping cream beaten at a leisurely pace of 2 strokes per second with a chilled wire whip in a chilled bowl will easily mount in 2 to 3 minutes. If you cannot bear the thought of not using your electric beater, circulate it by hand, starting at a slow speed and gradually increasing it to moderate, while lifting as much air as possible into the cream.
法式烹飪中用的奶油要打發到體積膨脹一倍,輕柔,光滑,絕不能結塊。打發奶油的基本方法跟打發蛋白的方法相仿,要讓空氣盡可能多地進去。這種時候固定式的電動打蛋器不怎么好用,打不出又輕又滑的奶油,電動攪拌器就更不推薦了。其實拿一只冰過的線狀打蛋器,再把冰過的奶油放在一只冰過的碗里,以每秒兩下的攪打速度悠哉悠哉地攪打2到3分鐘就能大功告成了。如果你實在是想用你的電動打蛋器,那就要用手拿著打蛋器,一邊攪打一邊在碗里繞圈,先從低速開始,逐漸調整為中速,要把空氣盡可能多地攪進去。

電動攪拌器


固定式打蛋器


手持式電動打蛋器

線狀打蛋器


Warning小提醒
If whipped cream is to be folded into other ingredients, be sure the other ingredients are cold; otherwise the cream will lose its stiffness and thin out.
如果要把打發的奶油翻拌到其他配料里去,那要確保其他配料是冷的,否則奶油就會失去發泡的效果癟下去。

A note on French cream關于法式奶油的注意事項
Although French cream fraiche and American whipping cream both contain approximately the same amount of butter fat, the consistency of French cream is thicker because it is slightly fermented. It must be thinned before whipping by the addition of 1 part of cold milk, iced water, or shaved ice for every 3 parts of cream.
雖然法式奶油和美式淡奶油的油脂含量相仿,但由于法式奶油略微發酵過,所以粘稠度較高。在攪打前一定要按1份冷牛奶,冰水或刨冰和3份奶油的比例將奶油調稀。
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Creme Chantilly奶油霜
Lightly Beaten Cream] [濕性起泡奶油]
This is lightly beaten cream, which is usually specified for such desserts as Bavarian cream, and for dessert sauces.
奶油霜是輕度打發的奶油,常用于一些特定的甜點中,例如巴伐利亞布。˙avarian Cream)和一些甜品醬汁中。

For about 2cups約2量杯
1/2 pint (1 cup) chilled whipping cream 冷藏淡奶油1/2品脫(1量杯)
A chilled 3-quart bowl冰鎮過的容量為3夸脫的碗一只
A chilled wire whip or chilled blades of electric beater 冰鎮過的線狀打蛋器一只或將電動攪拌機的攪拌棒冰鎮后使用

slowly until it begins to foam, while circulating the beater all around the bowl and lifting the cream as you whip it. Gradually increase the beating speed to moderate and continue until the beater leaves light traces on the surface of the cream. A bit of cream lifted and dropped on the surface will softly retain its shape.
將淡奶油倒入冰過的碗中,慢速攪打至起泡,攪打的過程中打蛋器要在碗中繞圈并提拉奶油。漸漸加快攪打的速度至中速,直至打蛋器能在奶油表面留下淺淺的痕跡。沾起來的一點奶油落到表面上時還能保持形狀。
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Stiffly beaten cream干性起泡奶油
For desserts which require more body, continue beating a few seconds more until the cream is a little bit stiffer and forms soft peaks. Do not beat beyond this stage or the cream will become granular, and then begin to turn into butter.
如果要制作蓬松型的甜點,那就再多攪打一會兒,直至奶油有點發硬,能夠形成一個軟的尖角。到這個程度就不要再攪打了,不然奶油會結塊,這其實是要開始變成黃油了。
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Storing whipped cream如何存放打發的奶油
Once cream is whipped, it will keep for several hours under refrigeration. As it usually exudes a bit of liquid, it is a good idea to turn it into a fine-meshed sieve and place the sieve over a bowl. This allows any seeping liquid to drop out of the cream.
奶油打發后冷藏的話可以存放數小時。不過打發好的奶油里常會滲出液體,所以把奶油放進一個網眼很細的篩子里,再把篩子架在碗上面,就可以讓滲出來的液體直接掉到碗里去。
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Flavored whipped cream為打發好的奶油調味
Before serving, fold in 2 tablespoons of sifted powdered sugar and a tablespoon or two of brandy, rum, or sweet liqueur, or a teaspoon or two of vanilla extract.
使用前,用2湯匙篩過的糖粉,或是一到兩湯匙白蘭地,朗姆酒或甜的利口酒,再或者是一到兩茶匙的香草精,翻拌到奶油中去。

5. CREAMING BUTTER AND SUGAR如何打發黃油和糖
Numerous dessert and cake recipes direct that butter and sugar be creamed together; this may be accomplished either by machine or by hand.
許多做甜點和蛋糕的食譜里都寫明了要將黃油和糖一同打發,電動或手工打發都可以。

Electric Beater 電動攪打
Use the pastry-blender attachment if you have one; you may use the regular beater, but the blades will become clogged. Cut the butter into 1/2-inch pieces. Warm the large mixing bowl in hot water. Dry it, add the butter and sugar, and beat at a moderate speed for several minutes. The mixture is ready to be used when it is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.
如果你有攪拌面糊用的攪拌棒,那一定要用這個;你也可以用普通的攪拌器,但是那些打起來會不太順暢。把黃油切成0.5英寸見方的小塊,拿一只大號攪拌碗放在熱水里加熱,然后擦干,放入黃油塊和糖,中速攪打幾分鐘。當混合的黃油糊變得很輕,蓬松,有點發白就可以了。

Hand Beating手工攪打
If the butter has been left at room temperature for an hour to soften, simply beat the butter and sugar together in a bowl for several minutes until they form a light, fluffy mass. For cold, hard butter, use the following system: Cut the butter into 1/2inch pieces and place it with the sugar in a mixing bowl set over barely simmering water. Beat with a wooden spoon for several seconds until the butter softens. Then set the bowl in a basin of cold water and beat for a minute or two until the mixture is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.
如果已經將黃油預先放在室溫下回溫一個小時至軟化,那就只需簡單地將黃油和糖放在碗中攪打數分鐘直至變輕,蓬松起來即可。如果黃油還凍得硬梆梆的,那就這么辦:把黃油切成0.5英寸見方的小塊,跟糖一起放入攪拌碗中,再將碗放在幾乎要沸騰的水中。用木勺攪打數秒,直至黃油變軟。然后再把碗拿出來放在一盆冷水中,再攪打一到兩分鐘直至黃油糊變得很輕,蓬松,有點發白就可以了。

6. MELTED CHOCOLATE如何融化巧克力
Because baking chocolate burns easily, you should watch it carefully while it melts. To melt chocolate, break it into small pieces or use chocolate drops (2 ounces make 1/3 cup). Place the chocolate in a small saucepan with 1/2 to 1 tablespoon strong coffee, rum, or water per ounce or square. Set the pan over hot but not simmering water and stir constantly with a wooden spoon for several minutes until the chocolate has melted to a perfectly smooth cream. Keep the saucepan in warm water until you are ready to use the chocolate.
巧克力很容易燒焦,所以在融化巧克力的時候一定要盯著點。先把巧克力切成小塊,或是直接用小塊的巧克力(譯注:像好時的kisses那樣的),2盎司巧克力融化后大概能裝1/3量杯。把巧克力放在一只小鍋里,按每盎司0.5到1湯匙的比例加入濃咖啡,朗姆酒或是水。將鍋子放在暖水里,注意不是滾水,用木勺不斷攪拌三五分鐘,直至巧克力完全融化,變成均勻光滑的巧克力醬。

7. ALMONDS杏仁
Whole, slivered, and powdered almonds have many uses in French pastries and desserts. Luckily you can buy blanched almonds in airtight cans at almost any American market, and although you do not often see powdered almonds, it is easy to do them in the electric blender. You will note that all the recipes which use almonds also call for a bit of almond extract to bring out the almond taste. This is not necessary in France, as one or two bitter almonds are always included. But as the oil of bitter almonds is poisonous when taken in too large a quantity, it can only be bought with a doctor's prescription in this country. But be careful with almond extract. It is strong; a few drops or a quarter teaspoon arc usually sufficient.
不論是整個兒的杏仁,杏仁片還是杏仁粉,在法式糕餅和甜點中都大有用武之地。真空包裝的去皮杏仁隨便在哪個超市都買得到,這可是個好消息,而且雖說杏仁粉不大常見,但用電動研磨器很容易就能磨出來。你會發現幾乎所有用到杏仁的食譜都會要求你用點兒杏仁香精來調(diao)出杏仁的香味。法式烹飪中不是這樣的,而是會放上一兩個苦杏仁。不過由于苦杏仁油大量攝入時會致人中毒,所以在美國只有拿著醫生的處方才能買到苦杏仁。不過用杏仁香精時也得當心點兒,因為它的味道很重,一般來說用幾滴或1/4茶匙的杏仁香精就足夠了。

1)MEASUREMENTS如何稱量杏仁
Four ounces of whole, broken, or powdered almonds are equivalent to about 3/4cup or 125grams.
4盎司完整的杏仁,杏仁片或杏仁粉大概是3/4量杯或125克。

2)Blanched Almonds 如何給杏仁去皮
Drop shelled almonds into boiling water and boil 1 minute. Drain. Squeeze each almond between the thumb and forefinger, and the almond will slip out of its skin. Spread the blanched almonds in a roasting pan and dry them out for 5 minutes in a 35o-degree oven.
把帶殼的杏仁丟入滾水中滾上個一分鐘,瀝干,用大拇指和食指擠壓,杏仁就會很容易地從皮里滑出來。把去皮后的杏仁撒在烤盤里,用350度的爐溫烘培5分鐘。

3)Pulverized Almonds 如何磨碎杏仁
If you do not have an electric blender, pound the almonds with a bit of granulated sugar in a mortar, or pass them through a meat grinder with granulated sugar and a few drops of water. If you have a blender, pulverize them 1/2 cup at a time at top speed for about 30 seconds.
如果你沒有電動研磨機,那就把杏仁放在研缽里,加點兒白砂糖,敲碎,或是加點白砂糖和數滴水后放入絞肉機里絞一下。如果你有電動研磨機,那就一次放半量杯杏仁下去,用最高速研磨30秒鐘。

4)Toasted or Grilled Almonds烤杏仁或烘杏仁
Spread whole, slivered, or powdered almonds in a roasting pan and set in a 35o-degree oven for about 10 minutes. Stir them up frequently and keep an eye on them so they do not burn. They should emerge an even, light, toasty brown.
把整個兒的杏仁,杏仁片或杏仁粉撒在烤盤里,在350度爐溫下烘培約10分鐘。要不時地撥弄撥弄杏仁,而且一定要盯著點,不然很容易烤焦?竞玫男尤蕬摮尸F均勻的,淡淡的,烘培后的焦黃色。
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果仁糖(Pralin )
[Caramelized Almonds] [焦糖杏仁]
This delicious ingredient is quickly made and can be stored for weeks in a screw-topped jar. It is used in desserts and sauces, as a sprinkling for ice cream, and as a flavoring for cake icings and fillings. In France, pralin is also made with hazel nuts or a mixture of hazel nurs and almonds.
這道美味的甜點配料簡單易做,而且可以存放在帶蓋(螺旋蓋)的罐子里數周不壞。它可以用在甜點或甜醬里,也可以撒在冰淇淋上,制作蛋糕上的糖霜或餡料時也可以拿它來調味。在法國,有時也用榛仁或是把榛仁和杏仁混起來制作果仁糖。

For about 1 cup約1量杯
1/2 cup slivered or powdered almonds 杏仁片或杏仁粉0.5量杯
1/2 cup granulated sugar白砂糖0.5量杯
An oiled marble slab or large baking sheet 一只涂過油的大理石板 或大號烤盤

Toast the almonds in a 3so-degree oven as previously described.
按前面講過的方法將杏仁放入350度的烤箱中烘培。

Boil the sugar and water in a small saucepan until the sugar caramelizes (see directions for caramel farther on). Immediately stir in the toasted almonds. Bring just to the boil, then pour onto the marble or baking sheet. When cold, in about 10 minutes, break the hardened mass into pieces. Pulverize in the electric blender, pound to a coarse powder in a mortar, or put it through a meat grinder.
將糖和水放入一只小鍋里煮沸,直至糖焦化(參見下面將要講到的焦糖的做法)。馬上把烘培好的杏仁倒下去攪拌。繼續煮,到剛剛開始沸騰時,將杏仁和糖漿倒在大理石板或烤盤上。冷卻后,大約需要十分鐘,把這一大塊硬東西敲碎。丟到電動研磨器里磨碎,或是放在研缽里搗碎,用絞肉機也可以。
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Pulverized Macaroons碎杏仁餅
Pulverized stale macaroons may be substituted for pralin. Break macaroons into small pieces, spread them in a roasting pan, and set in a 200-degree oven for about an hour. Remove when they are fairly dry and lightly browned; they will crisp up as they cool. When crisped, pulverize them in the electric blender, pound in a mortar, or put them through a meat grinder. Store in a screw-topped jar where they will keep for weeks.
把放了好一陣子的有點不大新鮮杏仁餅弄碎了就可以代替果仁糖。把杏仁餅掰碎后撒在烤盤上,放在200度的烤箱中烘培約1小時,等杏仁餅變得很干而且微微變成焦黃色時就可以了,冷卻后會變得很脆。這時就可以放進電動研磨器中磨碎,或是放在研缽里搗碎,也可以用絞肉機。存放在有蓋(螺旋蓋)的罐子里,可保數周不壞。
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Caramel焦糖
Caramel is sugar syrup cooked until it turns a light, nut brown. It is used as a flavoring or coloring, or for coating a mold.
把糖醬燒至淺淺的類似堅果的褐色時就是焦糖了。焦糖可以用來調味或上色,也可以用來涂抹在模具上。

For about 1/2 cup約0.5量杯
2/3 cup granulated sugar or crushed sugar lumps白砂糖或打碎的方糖2/3量杯
1/3 cup water水1/3量杯
A small, heavy saucepan 一只小號的較重的鍋子

Place sugar and water in saucepan and swirl (shake pan with circular motion) over moderately high heat until the sugar has dissolved completely. Then let the sugar boil, swirling the pan occasionally, until the syrup turns a light, nut brown. This will take 3 to 4 minutes. Remove saucepan from heat as soon as the desired color is reached; if you let it darken too much, it will have a bitter taste. Use immediately, as directed
將糖和水放入鍋中,開中高火,將鍋子放在火上打轉(繞著圈兒晃動鍋子),直至糖完全溶解。然后將糖漿燒開,不時地轉圈晃動鍋子,直至糖漿變成淺淺的類似堅果的褐色。這個過程大概需要3到4分鐘。顏色一變就馬上把鍋子拿開,煮的太焦吃起來會有點兒苦。要按照食譜中的說明把焦糖馬上用掉。

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