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法國飲食文化

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2011-03-23  來源:yeeyan  作者:xslynn編校  瀏覽次數:5894
核心提示:法國的美食非常多樣, 這主要依附于法國人對所有形式美食的強烈愛好。其實,在許多方面上,對法國飲食文化的了解即是對法國自身的了解。


French cuisine is extremely diverse, with only the Chinese having similar variety in their food. This variety is supported by the French passion for good food in all its forms, France's extraordinary range of different geographies and climates which support the local production of all types of ingredients, and France's long and varied history. In many ways, an understanding of the culture of French food is an understanding of France itself.

Meals range from the very basic, such as the traditional baguette plus cheese plus inexpensive wine, to very elaborate affairs that can involve a dozen courses and different wines consumed over several hours. Obviously, the latter type of dining is exceptional for most people. However, it is this more sophisticated dining which is typically found in "French restaurants" outside France, giving many foreigners the mistaken impression that French food is heavy and complicated. In fact, much of the French cuisine is fairly simple, relying on high quality fresh ingredients and loving preparation rather than complex recipes.

It is common in much of France to take a two hour break for lunch, with many working parents (particularly in villages and smaller towns) returning home for lunch. In some areas, mainly in the south of France, even longer lunch breaks are taken. Due to the long lunch break, businesses which close for this period typically reopen around 2PM or so and then stay open until about 7PM.

Regional influences on French food
Almost all the famous French dishes are regional specialities, some of which have become popular throughout France (such as Coq au Vin and Foie Gras) while others are mainly enjoyed in the regions in which they originate. Although regional specialities are often offered throughout France, the quality of ingredients and preparation is often superior in their region of origin.

Each region, in addition to boasting local specialities, also has a general style of cooking and choice of ingredients. For example, in Provence the food typically features olive oil, herbs and tomatoes. The evolution of regional cooking styles has been influenced by:

Local availability
The French, a nation of gourmets, know that the best food is made from local ingredients, which are fresher and of better quality than items which have been transported long distances. Consequently, coastal regions (such as Brittany and Normandy, on the northwest coast of France) will favour sea fish and will use it more often and in more varied ways than inland areas. Likewise, areas where fruit or herbs grow easily, will incorporate these into their local cuisine.

Neighbouring countries and immigration
Areas of France which border on other countries have incorporated some of the cuisine of their neighbours. It is not surprising to find Italian dishes near the Italian border. More notably, the French region of Alsace is similar to Germany in its food (sauerkraut is popular) and wine, partly due to it currently bordering on Germany and partly due to it having been part of Germany at various points in its history (the border has moved back and forth with various wars). In parts of the south which have a large North African immigrant population one can enjoy the cuisine which they have imported from their original countries.

History and economic conditions
The culture, lifestyle and economic conditions over a long period of time have formed the development of local food traditions. The rich meat dishes and cream sauces of Burgundy are not only due to Burgundian excellence in raising cattle, but in large part to the economic prosperity of this region over several centuries. On the other hand, mountain regions excel in firm cheeses, which allow food to be preserved over the long and difficult winters, and can be produced from mountain livestock which historically were the main means of support for many families in economically limited areas.

In all parts of France one will find a range of dishes, both in restaurants and in homes, which extends far beyond the regional specialities. However, in much of France the regional influences in terms of ingredients and cooking are marked. The most available food and the best cooking tend to be those produced from local ingredients and using local recipes. Therefore, the decision of where to visit or live in France tends to influence which types of food one will enjoy.

The French Mediterranean uses olive oil, herbs and tomatoes in many of its dishes. The cuisine of northwest France uses butter, soured cream (crème fraiche) and apples. The cuisine of northeast France (Alsace, and to a lesser extent Lorraine) has a strong German influence which includes beer and sauerkraut. Throughout the south in general there tends to be more use of vegetables and fruit (in part due to the favourable climate). Near the Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean there is a greater consumption of sea food, while inland areas favoured by rivers (e.g. the Loire valley) use more fresh water fish.

The Italian connection
Any discussion of the influences on French cuisine would be incomplete without recognising the historical contribution of Italy to the development of French cooking. In 1533, Catherine De Medicis (a Florentine princess) married Henry duc d'Orleans (who became King Henry II or France). At this point, France was not know for its food or food culture. Catherine brought an entourage of Italian chefs with her to France, who introduced to France a variety of dishes, food preparation and dining practices. Although France and Italy obviously have evolved very different food cultures, both before and since this contribution, much of France's current food culture can be traced back to this time.

Cooking styles
Every region of France has its own distinctive traditions in terms of ingredients and preparation (see France Regions for further information). On top of this, there are three general approaches which compete with each other:

Classical French cuisine (also known in France as cuisine bourgeoise).
This includes all the classical French dishes which were at one time regional, but are no longer specifically regional. Food is rich and filling, with many dishes using cream-based sauces.

Haute cuisine
It is classical French cuisine taken to its most sophisticated and extreme. Food is elegant, elaborate and generally rich. Meals tend to be heavy, especially due to the use of cream and either large portions or many smaller portions. There is a strong emphasis on presentation (in particular, vegetables tend to be cut with compulsive precision and uniformity). The finest ingredients are used, and the meal is correspondingly expensive.

Cuisine Nouvelle.
This style developed in the 1970s, as a reaction against the classical school of cooking. The food is simpler and lighter. Portions are smaller and less rich; the heavy cream sauces of the classical approach are particularly avoided. Cooking is less elaborate and quicker, with more emphasis on local and seasonal ingredients.

Cuisine du terroir.
This focuses on regional specialities and is somewhat more rustic in nature. Local produce and food traditions are the main focus.

Each of these three traditions are strongly represented in France, with each having its supporters and specialist restaurants. At the moment, Cuisine Nouvelle is less popular than it was, while Cuisine du terroir has grown in popularity in recent years.

Wine and cheese
Aside from bread and water, the most common accompaniments to a French meal are wine and cheese. Unlike other countries, in France wine is considered a standard part of everyday meals, and is neither expensive nor reserved for special occasions. With everyday meals, ordinary wines are served, although it is expected that the style of wine match the style of food.

In addition to its use in cooking, cheese is often served as a course in itself. In this case, it is served after the main meal but before dessert. This typically consists of a platter with three or four different cheeses, from which guests can slice pieces according to their preferences. Sliced bread (e.g. slices of a baguette) are typically provided at the same time.

Restaurant guides
The most famous and successful restaurant guide in France is the Michelin Guide Rouge, which has approximately 50% market share. It has enormous influence; the award of a single star by the Guide Rouge to a restaurant can add 25% to its turnover and the loss of a star can mean financial ruin for a restaurant.

The Guide Rouge is both a restaurant guide and a hotel guide, although its better known for the former. For the towns in the Guide Rouge there is a list of the main tourist attractions and for the larger towns there is a map. In addition to having one in the house it is handy to have one in the car (e.g. if you are unexpectedly delayed on a journey and need to find a good local restaurant).

Although the Guide Rouge does not provide exact details on the criteria they use for rating restaurants, there are a number of factors beside the quality of food: service, atmosphere and value are some of the other considerations. This perhaps explains our experience that not all restaurants with the same overall rating have the same quality of food, one restaurant may have tremendous atmosphere and average food while another with the same rating may have exceptional food but little atmosphere. The Guide Rouge sometimes makes a few comments under a recommended restaurant; these are worth reading as they give an indication of what aspect of the restaurant impressed the reviewer. The comments sometimes note specialities of the house, which are often the best items on the menu.


參考譯文:
法國的美食是非常多樣的,只有中國有與之匹敵的食品種類。這些品種依附于法國人對所有形式美食的強烈愛好。法國不尋常的各種不同地理和氣候條件,支撐著當地所有類型原料的生產和法國悠久多樣化的歷史。在許多方面上,對法國飲食文化的了解即是對法國自身的了解。

進餐類型可從最基本的如傳統面包加奶酪加上低廉的葡萄酒,一直延伸到花費幾個小時包括十幾道菜和各種葡萄酒的復雜進餐。顯然,后者餐飲類型對大多數人來說是少見的。不過,這是一種非常復雜的進餐,在法國以外的“法國餐廳”都能找到它。這種餐飲給許多外國人錯誤印象認為法國食品是濃重和復雜的。在事實上,大部分的法國烹飪是相當簡單,它依靠高質量的新鮮食品材料和愛好制作成而不是靠復雜的食譜。

許多法國人花一兩個小時吃午餐是很普遍的,許多外出工作的父母(尤其是在鄉村和小城鎮)都會回家吃午飯。在一些地區,主要集中在法國南部,甚至要花更長的午餐休息時間。由于長時間的午餐休息,這期間企業停業直到下午二點左右重開直到晚上七點左右停業。

區域對法國食品的影響
幾乎所有著名的法國菜肴是區域特產,其中一些在整個法國流行(如紅酒燴雞和鵝肝),另一些則主要是在它們原產地受歡迎。盡管整個法國都能提供地區特產,但往往原產地的原料質量和制作更好。

每個區域,除吹噓當地特產外,都會有特色的烹飪風格和原料選擇。例如,普羅旺斯食物通常的特點是橄欖油,草藥和西紅柿。區域烹調方式演變主要受以下因素影響:

本地供貨
法國是一個美食民族,它知道最好的食物是由本地原料制成的,因為它們要比那些經過長距離運輸的材料有著更好的新鮮度和質量。因此,海岸地區(如布列塔尼和諾曼底,在法國西北海岸)就要比內陸地區更偏愛咸水魚,食用次數及加工方法也會比內陸地區更多些。同樣,容易生長水果或草藥的地區,人們將會把它們納入到當地的日常飲食中去。

鄰國和移民
與其他國家邊境相接的法國地區,把一些鄰國的菜譜并入到當地菜譜中,在意大利邊境地區找到意大利菜是不足為奇的。更值得注意的是,法國阿爾薩斯地區其食品(酸菜很受歡迎)和葡萄酒類似于德國,一部分原因是它目前接壤德國,一部分原因是在歷史上爭議它一直是德國的一部分(在戰爭中來回移動)。在南部地區有大量的北非移民喜歡從他們原來國家帶來的菜譜。

歷史和經濟條件
長時間的文化、生活方式和經濟條件形成發展了當地的飲食傳統。豐富的肉類菜肴,勃艮第的奶油醬汁不僅歸因于勃艮第養牛的卓越,大部份還歸因于該地區幾個世紀以來經濟的繁榮。在另一方面,山區有利于制作堅硬的奶酪,這些奶酪能讓食物保存較長時間和度過艱難的冬天,這些奶酪能用山區牲畜做成,在歷史上這些牲畜是經濟有限區域大多數家庭的主要謀生手段。

在整個法國,你會發現一系列的菜肴,不論是在餐館和在家庭,遠遠超出了區域特產的范圍。然而,大部分法國地區的原料及烹飪都有著自己顯著的特色。最受用食品和最佳烹調術往往是那些利用當地原料和烹飪技法做成的。因此,決定在法國何處參觀或居住,往往會影響到人們將享用哪些種類的食物。

法國地中海地區在其許多的菜譜中使用橄欖油,草藥和西紅柿。法國西北地區菜譜中使用黃油,酸奶油和蘋果,法國東北菜譜(阿爾薩斯,洛林較小范圍內)受到德國很強的影響,這包括啤酒和酸菜。在整個南部地區,一般往往會更多地利用蔬菜和水果(部分歸因于有利的氣候)。大西洋海岸附近和地中海地區對海鮮食品有很大的消耗量,而靠近河流的內陸地區(如盧瓦爾河谷)則更多食用淡水魚。

與意大利的聯系
任何關于法國烹飪所受影響的討論若沒有涉及意大利對法國烹飪發展的歷史貢獻都將是不完整的。1533年,凱瑟琳梅第奇(佛羅倫薩的公主) 與奧爾良亨利公爵結婚(后成為國王亨利二世) 此時,法國的食品和飲食文化還不為人知。凱瑟琳隨行帶來的一位意大利廚師給法國引進了各種菜肴、食品制備及用餐方法。盡管在這一貢獻前后所有時間里,法國和意大利明顯地演變成了非常不同的飲食文化,但法國目前很多飲食文化皆可追溯到這個時期。

烹調方式
法國每一個地區在配料和制作方面都有自己獨特的傳統,其中,有3個互相競爭的通用方法:

Classical French cuisine (在法國也稱作cuisine bourgeoise)
這包括所有的古典法式菜肴,這些菜肴曾經具有地區性,但現在已不再具有具體區域性。食品味道濃厚且充滿餡料,許多菜肴都會使用奶基醬汁。
Haute cuisine
Haute cuisine算是法國古典中最復雜和極端的了。高雅、精致而且通常有著濃厚的味道。餐食味道往往很重,主要是由于奶油的使用及大體積或體積稍小但數量較多的配份。其特別注重外觀(尤其是蔬菜,都要進行精確均勻地削減)。由于使用了最好的原材料,因此其相應的價格也很昂貴。

Cuisine Nouvelle
這種風格在20世紀70年代發展起來,作為對古典的烹飪學派的改革。這種食品比較簡單和清淡。其配份較小,味道也不是很重; 特別避免了古典方法中濃重的奶油醬汁的使用。這種烹飪沒那么精細,所以比較快捷,其更側重于本地及季節性原材料。

Cuisine du terroir
它側重于區域特色,且做工有些粗糙,本地產品和食品傳統是其重點。

在法國,這三種傳統美食中的每一種都具有很強的代表性,并有各自的支持者和專門餐廳。目前,Cuisine Nouvelle沒有以前那么流行,而Cuisine du terroir近來快速增長。


葡萄酒與干酪
除了面包和水,法國佐餐最常見的搭配物是葡萄酒和奶酪。與其他國家不同,在法國,葡萄酒被認為是每天佐餐基本的一部分,它既不昂貴,也不會留作一些特別場合。雖然期望葡萄酒的風格會與食品的風格相匹配,但日常膳食都會食用普通葡萄酒。

除可用于烹飪外,奶酪本身也經常作為一道菜。在這種情況下,它是在主食之前而甜心之后吃的。它通常是由一個盛有三個或四個不同奶酪的盤組成,客人可以根據他們的喜好切成小片。與此同時,還會提供切片面包(如長棒面包切片)。

餐館指南
在法國最有名的和最成功的餐館指南是米其林胭脂指南,擁有大約50%的市場份額。它有巨大的影響力;胭脂指南每爭取到一位明星到餐廳就可以增加25%的營業額,損失一位明星對餐廳來說意味著財政損失。

胭脂指南既是餐廳指南也是酒店指南,雖然其是以前者出名。對于小城鎮,胭脂指南有主要旅游景點的清單,較大的城鎮會有一個地圖。除了在家里放一本,隨身攜帶一本在車上也將會很便利(例如,如果你因為一些非預期的意外而耽誤了旅程并需要找一個較好的當地餐廳)。

雖然指南胭脂并沒有提供他們劃分餐廳等級所使用標準的具體內容,但除食品質量外還有著許多因素:服務,氣氛,價值是一些其他會考慮的因素。這也給我們的經驗常識給出了解釋:并非所有有著相同等級的餐廳都有相同的食品質量,一個餐廳可能會有強大的環境氛圍和很一般的食物,而另一家相同等級的餐廳則可能會有較好的食物但卻很一般的環境氛圍。指南胭脂有時會在所推薦餐廳下面給出一些評論;這些都是值得一讀的,因為它們給出了一個餐廳哪方面給評論家留下了深刻印象的指示。評論有時會備注餐廳的特色,這往往都是目錄上最好的條目。

相關閱讀:美國飲食文化
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